Kong et al. (2018a)
Kong, Qiuqiang, Xu, Yong, Wang, Wenwu and Plumbley, Mark D. (2018) Audio set classification with attention model: a probabilistic perspective In: ICASSP 2018 - 2018 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 15 - 20 Apr 2018, Calgary, Canada.
Abstract This paper investigates the Audio Set classification. Audio Set is a large scale weakly labelled dataset (WLD) of audio clips. In WLD only the presence of a label is known, without knowing the happening time of the labels. We propose an attention model to solve this WLD problem and explain the attention model from a novel probabilistic perspective. Each audio clip in Audio Set consists of a collection of features. We call each feature as an instance and the collection as a bag following the terminology in multiple instance learning. In the attention model, each instance in the bag has a trainable probability measure for each class. The classification of the bag is the expectation of the classification output of the instances in the bag with respect to the learned probability measure. Experiments show that the proposed attention model achieves a mAP of 0.327 on Audio Set, outperforming the Google’s baseline of 0.314.