Xu et al. (2017c)
Xu, Yong, Kong, Qiuqiang, Huang, Qiang, Wang, Wenwu and Plumbley, Mark (2017) Attention and Localization based on a Deep Convolutional Recurrent Model for Weakly Supervised Audio Tagging. In: Interspeech 2017, 20 - 24 August 2017, Stockholm, Sweden.
Audio tagging aims to perform multi-label classification on audio chunks and it is a newly proposed task in the Detection and Classification of Acoustic Scenes and Events 2016 (DCASE 2016) challenge. This task encourages research efforts to better analyze and understand the content of the huge amounts of audio data on the web. The difficulty in audio tagging is that it only has a chunk-level label without a frame-level label. This paper presents a weakly supervised method to not only predict the tags but also indicate the temporal locations of the occurred acoustic events. The attention scheme is found to be effective in identifying the important frames while ignoring the unrelated frames. The proposed framework is a deep convolutional recurrent model with two auxiliary modules: an attention module and a localization module. The proposed algorithm was evaluated on the Task 4 of DCASE 2016 challenge. State-of-the-art performance was achieved on the evaluation set with equal error rate (EER) reduced from 0.13 to 0.11, compared with the convolutional recurrent baseline system.